Further south, both clover and the grasses may be seeded in the autumn. All of these are classified as exhaustive crops. In fixed rotation when they not only recur in a fixed order but also at regular intervals. Producers of perennial crops that aren’t rotated may utilize other practices, such as cover crops, to maintain soil health. Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area across a sequence of growing seasons. The four staple crops above mentioned may be arranged into several rotations with manure and fertilizers applied. When they not only recur in a fixed order but also at regular intervals. The rotation between arable and ley is sometimes called ley farming. It also enables him to plan his work and secure his materials, such as seed, fertilizers, etc., in advance of the time they are needed. [6], Double-cropping is common where two crops, typically of different species, are grown sequentially in the same growing season, or where one crop (e.g. One crop rotation is known as the major. Farmers in the region of Waasland (in present-day northern Belgium) pioneered a four-field rotation in the early 16th century, and the British agriculturist Charles Townshend (1674–1738) popularised this system in the 18th century. Their ill effect upon subsequent crops may be due to anyone or a combination of a number of factors, among which are physical condition of the soil, injurious insects, plant diseases, reduction of soil moisture and a failure to supply either organic matter or nitrogen in any appreciable quantity. In like manner, legumes leave organic matter and nitrogen in the soil which is utilized to the advantage of corn or potatoes which may follow. [5], There is no limit to the number of crops that can be used in a rotation, or the amount of time a rotation takes to complete. [28] In an opportunity cropping system, crops are grown when soil water is adequate and there is a reliable sowing window. They generally grow worse the longer the land remains in the hay. Between the seeding time of oats and the time for planting corn, there is sufficient time to prepare the land for the latter crop. Many similar examples could be cited, and success in preventing insect depredation by crop rotation calls for a knowledge of life history. The soybeans help suppress the pest so that the corn planted the following year will not be as adversely affected by it. And crops in the rotation unless two crops can be harvested from the land in one year. [27], The effect of crop rotation on erosion control varies by climate. It is important, therefore, in selecting crops for rotation, to select that will compete with each other for the labor of men and teams a little as possible. And clovers that follow the grain crops. A good rotation of crops will enable the farmer to do a larger proportion of his own work than would be possible if the land was devoted to one crop. cash crop versus cover crop). ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crop_rotation&oldid=1000565368, Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 17:30. OECD Test Guideline 502 (Metabolism in Rotational Crops) (1) describes model studies which determine the potential for uptake of residues from the soil following treatment with a radiolabelled active ingredient and the magnitude and nature of the residues in representative three crop groups. The use of different species in rotation allows for increased soil organic matter (SOM), greater soil structure, and improvement of the chemical and biological soil environment for crops. For example, mustard is a common weed in the small grain crops in the prairie states. However efficient the rotation of crops may be in the extermination of insects, some rotations may prove not only ineffective but actually disastrous. The billbug breeds freely in the bulbous roots of timothy, and when timothy sod is ploughed late in the spring and planted to corn, this insect transfers its attention to the corn with disastrous results. The cultivation of corn will precede the harvest of hay and oats. Over much of this region tomatoes may be set as late as June 1st. [30] This is very important because depending on a particular region's climate, a field could be the most vulnerable to erosion when it is under fallow. Weeds make farmers less efficient when harvesting, because weeds like bindweeds, and knotgrass, can become tangled in the equipment, resulting in a stop-and-go type of harvest. The cultivation given the corn provides a good seed-bed for wheat with no other preparation than thorough disking and harrowing of the corn stubble. Cover crops are, therefore, considered conservation crops because they protect otherwise fallow land from becoming overrun with weeds.[21]. [1][2] In the Bible, chapter 25 of the Book of Leviticus instructs the Israelites to observe a "Sabbath of the Land". And habits of the insect pest concerned. How it works. [7] Row crops typically have low biomass and shallow roots: this means the plant contributes low residue to the surrounding soil and has limited effects on structure. Crop rotation, the successive cultivation of different crops in a specified order on the same fields, in contrast to a one-crop system or to haphazard crop successions. Improvement in food Resources Join my telegram channel for free notes or whatsapp on 9563291571. [4] From the times of Charlemagne (died 814), farmers in Europe transitioned from a two-field crop rotation to a three-field crop rotation. At the same time, he is trying to educate people about the environment and climate issues. [7] For example, giving adequate attention to plant family is essential to mitigating pests and pathogens. Most insect pests live on some particular crop or a few closely related crops. The efficiency of the labor of men and teams on farms is measured largely by the proportion of time for which they are profitably employed. vegetable) is grown continuously with a cover crop (e.g. Two years rotation Maize – Mustard-Sugarcane – Fenugreek; Maize – Potato- Sugarcane – Peas; 3. Notwithstanding these facts, certain crops leave the land in poorer conditions for subsequent crops than it was before. If you are a student of class 9 who is using NCERT … [29], Crop rotations also affect the timing and length of when a field is subject to fallow. It is a principle that there should be as many fields as there are years. [10] Green manure of legumes is an excellent source of nitrogen, especially for organic systems, however, legume biomass does not contribute to lasting soil organic matter like grasses do. Paragraph on “Crop Rotation” complete paragraph for Class 9, Class 10, Class 11 and Class 12 Crop Rotation Different types of plants take in different types of … [9], In short, while these crops may be profitable for the farm, they are nutrient depleting. Depending upon the duration, crop rotation may be of following three types : 1. [26] The formation of soil aggregates is important for erosion control, as they are better able to resist raindrop impact, and water erosion. [9], In addition to lowering the need for inputs (by controlling for pests and weeds and increasing available nutrients), crop rotation helps organic growers increase the amount of biodiversity their farms. (7) Distributes the labor of men and horses. Clover hay supplies the protein in which corn is deficient, thus giving & well-balanced ration. Corn prices are prevailing. Thus allowing them leisure during the remainder of the year. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "jan 1, 6000 BC - Crop Rotation (Timeline)", Tipsheet: Crop Rotation in Organic Farming Systems, National Center for Appropriate Technology, "§205.205 Crop rotation practice standard", "Nitrogen Fixation and Inoculation of Forage Legumes", "Cover crops have major role to play in soil health", "Crop Rotation – A Vital Component of Organic Farming", "Are Some Crops Synergistic to Following Crops? Usually, it is unwise to follow a crop like tobacco, which is considered a gross feeder, with another crop such as corn having similar feeding habits. (8) Saves labor in the cultivation of land. One strong point in this rotation is that one plowing answers for three crops. It is defined by the use of fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. (10) It provides for a balanced removal of plant food. Field note … These two classes of crops should alternate as far as possible. This provides uniformity in the distribution of work from year to year. It is desirable that crops be arranged in such a way that the improving acts of each crop shall be regularly received and the ill effects of the exhaustive crops are systematically neutralized by the crop that follows. Extensive rotation experiments at the Minnesota Experiment Station show that standard rotations, which include an inter-tilled crop, small grains, and grasses with clover, all give net profits. Wherever feasible, a large proportion of the product of rotation should be food for livestock. Soil microorganisms also decrease pathogen and pest activity through competition. The length of time that a crop remains productive is also a factor. Jan 18,2021 - What is CROP Rotation | EduRev Class 8 Question is disucussed on EduRev Study Group by 166 Class 8 Students. How much nitrogen made available to the plants depends on factors such as the kind of legume, the effectiveness of rhizobia bacteria, soil conditions, and the availability of elements necessary for plant food.[20]. [13], Integrating certain crops, especially cover crops, into crop rotations is of particular value to weed management. (1) A rotation of crops provides for maintaining the soil in good tilth. These will be determined largely by local conditions. Definition of Crop Rotation Crop rotation is a system of moving crops. [16] Increasing biodiversity also increases the resilience of agro-ecological systems.[7]. Under crop rotation, the number of viable seeds in the soil is reduced through the reduction of the weed population. Monocropping reduces soil fertility and destroys the structure of the soil. [citation needed], Studies have shown that crop rotations greatly increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content, the main constituent of soil organic matter. Introducing livestock makes the most efficient use of critical sod and cover crops; livestock (through manure) are able to distribute the nutrients in these crops throughout the soil rather than removing nutrients from the farm through the sale of hay. A rotation consisting of corn, oats, wheat and clover and timothy is a definite one, regardless of whether the clover and timothy remain for one, two or three years, but it becomes a fixed rotation when not only the order of the crops is named, but the length of time of each crop is also specified. The rotation is definite when the crops recur in a fixed order, and it is in the fixed rotation. [12] Moreover, a crop rotation must consider in what condition one crop will leave the soil for the succeeding crop and how one crop can be seeded with another crop. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Akshay is a garden enthusiast and agriculturist and loves nature. Crop rotation definition, the system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same ground, especially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weeds, diseases, and pests. In addition to their negative impact on crop quality and yield, weeds can slow down the harvesting process. 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